Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus is a form of diabetes present at birth, which typically resolves during infancy. Diabetes is a condition where a person’s body cannot convert sugar to energy the same way most people's bodies do. This is often because of an inability of the body to produce insulin. Insulin is a messenger that tells the body to break down sugars to make energy needed for daily life. Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus is a rare condition occurring in only 1 in 300,000 to 400,000 live births each year. In 50% of the cases of transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, the individual will relapse (have diabetes again) in late childhood. Treatment for transient neonatal diabetes mellitus is usually insulin treatment for the first three months of the child's life, at which point the diabetes will likely resolve until potentially later in life. Close follow-up with a physician is necessary to manage this condition.